Monday, May 25, 2020

Save a Life - 842 Words

Save a Life TOPIC: Organ Donating ORGANIZATION: Problem/ Solution SPECIFIC PURPOSE: I would like my audience to believe that acquiring information about organ donating will save lives and encourage people to donate. INTRODUCTION: I. Attention Getter: You have the ability to save lives by simply dying. What am I talking about? I am talking about organ donors. According to the official U.S. Government web site for organ and tissue donation, about 74 people receive organ transplants each day, but 18 people still die each day waiting for transplants that can’t take place because of the shortage of donated organs. So why aren’t you a donor? II. Relevance: How often do you hear about organ donating? III. Credibility: My†¦show more content†¦Transition: The lack of organ donating is becoming a serious problem in the United States. According to Journey of Hearts, in 2004, every 16 minutes a new name was added to the National Organ Transplant Waiting List. However, there is an organization dedicated to the education about organ donating. II. The second part of the problem is that people are unaware of the organization called Earth Angels. A: Earth Angels was founded to provide education on organ donating. 1. It is a non-profit organization that promotes organ, tissue and blood donation. 2. It consists of more than 25 volunteers between the ages of 16-17. Their purpose is to educate the public on organ donating and help answer any questions so they can make the decision that is right for them. 3. According to Earth Angels in 2003, it is imperative to learn about organ donating because, you are more likely to need an organ transplant, than to become and organ donor. Transition: Earth Angels is one of many organizations that help promote organ donating, but people are still unaware and uneducated on organ donating. I feel that a solution must be made in order for more people to donate and increase the education about organ donating. III. The solution that I propose is that we educate the world about donating organs. This will be done showing educational commercialsShow MoreRelatedSAVE WATER SAVE LIFE3793 Words   |  16 PagesSAVE WATER SAVE LIFE Water covers 71% of the Earths surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%. A very small amount of theRead MoreTo Save a Life1399 Words   |  6 Pages To Save a Life Life is precious. It is an amazing phenomenon that has made this planet one-of-a-kind in the entire galaxy (at least so far as our knowledge goes at present). Abortion is strongly criticized by those with strong religious beliefs as they believe that life is a blessing from God. Any attempt to destroy or modify a life is seen as meddling with the powers of the Almighty. As an advocate of pro-life, such arguments are strengthened by stating that a life begins at conceptionRead MoreSpeech on save water save life762 Words   |  4 PagesSave water, save life Water is necessary for life. Water is needed for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Three-fourth of Earth s surface is covered by water bodies. 97 per cent of this water is present in oceans as salt water and is unfit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 per cent. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers n Antarctica and other inaccessible places. Only one per cent of fresh water is available and fit for human useRead MoreSave the Earth and Save Life Essay1102 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The polar bear, while surviving in drastically reduced numbers, is already effectively extinct in its natural habitat—and no amount of change can save it. Scientists estimate that just 20,000 to 25,000 polar bears survive in the wild,†(Walker, Gabrielle and Sir David King). Global warming is affecting not only polar bears but also many other species that are going extinct. Habitats are destroyed and islands are invaded by the sea water, slowly sinking. Every living thing and environment on thisRead MoreEssay on Save your Fo od, Save a Life2271 Words   |  10 PagesNow imagine not even living paycheck to paycheck, rather living day by day not knowing which of your family members, friends, or even yourself will make it to the next day. Countless people in this world face this devastating fear every day of their life due to their lack of food. This lack of food has been caused by high prices of food and high demand of food, both of which add to a low availability of food for those who cannot afford the necessities. Meanwhile, high society throws out good foodRead More Give a Heart, Save a Life760 Words   |  3 Pagesbetter life than they ever thought possible. One of the greatest road blocks when it comes to people being organ donors is the lack of information, and the misinformation that surround organ donation. And because of this, the number of people on the donor list compared to the amount of donors is terribly unbalanced. Although there is a misconception that a doctor may not try as hard to save someones life if they are an organ donor, organ donation is a noble cause because it not only saves and improvesRead MoreAdopt and Save a Life Essay1553 Words   |  7 Pages Though we do not realize many animals have a life as this dog has had. Studies show that more animals in the United States are being euthanized every day due to the fact of overpopulation of animals, serious injury or diseases, puppy mills and natural disasters. According to the Humane Society of the United States, they estimated that in 2013, animal shelters care for about six to eight million dogs and cats every year, of this approximately three to four million are euthanized (Pet Overpopulation)Read MoreSpeech : Save Your Life ! 1130 Words   |  5 Pagesthat’s fully packed with laughing guests. However, it was the complete opposite. The dancing and feasting have stopped, Faces of terror and the deafening sound of countless screaming replaced them. The guests were sprinting toward the ex it, â€Å"Save your life!† they said, â€Å"There’s a murderer in this damned house† one shouted. â€Å"Run before they find you† another one screamed in agony. The massive crowd of screaming guests almost resembles a group of feeble fish trying to escape the fishing net. ItRead MoreHow to Save an Animal Life Essay1636 Words   |  7 PagesHow to Save a Life I remember when I was 11 years old and my dog, Happy, was sick with cancer. Since the moment we rescued Happy he was the sweetest, most energetic pet I had ever seen. He remained this way over the many years that we had him, hence, his name. I remember the day we decided it was time to let go. We took Happy to the veterinarian clinic and were taken into a little room. All four of us, my brother, my parents, and I, huddled around Happy as he was lying on the counter. The veterinarianRead MoreCan Music Save Your Life?892 Words   |  4 Pagesinfluence them. Some people think that music can positively influence the listener while others disagree and argue that it has a negative impact. Mark Edmundson, the author of â€Å"Can Music Save Your Life?,† asserts through his own experience and the research of others that music solely â€Å"preserves† the listener’s life as a â€Å"balm—cortisone spread† (paragraph 25). His use of a well-known medical supplement makes it more relatable and believable to the reader. The authors of â€Å"Feeling the Beat† support Edmundson

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Better Health for the Future - 1116 Words

Running head: PLANNING BETTER HEALTH FOR THE FUTURE Planning Better Health for the Future Planning Better Health for the Future Almost every industry in the country is suffering, including health care, meaning that there are specific areas of interest where budgets might have to be cut in order to stay within the given limits. The National Center for Health Statistics has established the Healthy People 2010 for tracking the nation’s health. There are 28 focus areas mentioned in Healthy People 2010, ten of which, being the most important to address if budgetary restraints limited the studies of these specific areas. Implementing programs to ensure the budgets for each area are maintained, and to design a plan B if the budget was†¦show more content†¦A team would be created that consists of different employees from facilities pertaining to each area of study. Basically, they would get together, crunch numbers, and find ways to make sure on how they can stay within the budget that was given to each area named. Once the team was able to configure all the numbe rs, and what it would take to maintain all their research and studies on a fixed budget, they would present it in a meeting that would include the CEO’s of major health companies around the country, government agencies, and other important people in the science world. If the program proved unsuccessful, resulting in failures to achieve such goals, this could be a detrimental hit not only to the health care world, but to society as a whole. If research became limited due to budget restraints, the number of diagnosis’ stemming from a pre-existing condition, would continue to increase; resulting in more deaths and increased hospital visits. Individuals are already having trouble maintaining certain conditions such as diabetes, and without the proper research to help educate, prevent or treat this disease, other health conditions will arise, making the individual more sick than before. More money would be spent on building biggerShow MoreRelatedNew Electronic Health Record ( Ehr ) That Can Better Support Future Patient And Healthcare Needs1284 Words   |  6 Pagesas a disruptor in health care. This provides an impactful advantage for the urgent care industry, meaning it is an upstart that is changing the status quo by allowing patients to access care at the time and place they choose (Kulin, 2015). In the book,Where Does It Hurt? An Entrepreneur’s Guid to Fixing Health Care (Bush Baker, 2014), reported a few stark stats that leadership presented to investors as to why our organization needed to make the switch to a new Electronic Health Record (EHR) thatRead MoreEffects Of Obesity On Children And Children1381 Words   |  6 Pagesyear; especially, the rate of disease that were found in young adults can now be found in young children because of lack of exercise. Therefore, as the director of this facility in for future reference, the research I m focusing is base on the children s improving in physical health to prevent any disease in the f uture or at least to minimize the situation problem of obesity that is occurring right now in the 21st century. In addition, play is an important product for young children which can alsoRead MoreProfessional Development of Nursing Professionals824 Words   |  4 PagesRobert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine, (IOM) introduced a two year contract in 2008 (IOM, 2010). The basis of the contract is recommendations, which will impact the future of nursing care, and include changes in â€Å"public and institutional policies at the national, state, and local levels† (Future, 2010). This essay will provide a basic understanding of the IOM’s contract, including the impact on nursing education, nursing practice in primary care, and the impact on the nurse’sRead MoreBetter Health Association Control Plan1208 Words   |  5 PagesBetter Health Association Control Plan Introduction As Executive Director, I will provide staff leadership for Better Health Association. Our goal for the company is to improve the well-being of individuals. Audiences of all ages will be able to take part in learning about living a healthy lifestyle and developing the skills needed to make healthy choices to prevent diseases and ameliorate conditions for those already afflicted with illnesses. Over the course of the following year, it is my responsibilityRead MoreLeading Innovation Of Institute Of Medicine For Nursing1214 Words   |  5 PagesThe Leading Innovation of Institute of Medicine for Nursing The future of nurses is important due to high levels of responsibilities that needed in all aspect of the health care settings. The skills and knowledges that nurses possess serves as the tool to provide better care for all patients. With the vision and partnership of Institute of Medicine and Robert Wood Johnson Foundations, the transformation of the nursing profession is implemented not only here in California, but in other part of theRead MoreImplementation Of The Institute Of Medicine1016 Words   |  5 PagesMedicine (IOM) Future of Nursing Report Introduction The focus of this paper is based on the importance of the IOM report on the â€Å"Future of Nursing† in relation to nursing practice, workforce development and the nursing education. The standard of practice coupled with professional accountability in addition to professional development forms the foundation for the nursing profession as it continues to evolve with the ever-changing needs of those they serve, be it the patient, the public, health care teamRead MoreEssay about The Future of Nursing751 Words   |  4 PagesRunning head: THE FUTURE OF NURSING The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health Victoria G. Tapia Grand Canyon University: NRS 430V March 25, 2012 The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health On October 5, 2010, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its recommendations in Nursing in the United States, â€Å"The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health.† For two years a committee named Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) worked to study facts, researchRead MoreAre You Ready?1020 Words   |  5 PagesAffordable Health Care Act of 2010 becoming a reality, there is a growing need for nursing practice to advance. With this in mind, the health care delivery system is changing and as nurses we need to be ready. Health care will no longer be focused on the disease but more on the prevention of the disease and health promotion. Who better than nurses to be best positioned to fill such new and expanded roles as a consequence of this redesigned healthcare system? With further education we shall be better preparedRead MoreElectronic Medical Record ( Emr )952 Words   |  4 Pages Health Information Technology (HIT) is continuously evolving and holds high pro mising standards when it comes to improving the health care quality in the U.S. and other countries. Health Information Technology (HIT) can improve in several areas such as: efficiency, cost reduction, quality and safety care delivery, immediately accessibility of data to clinicians by making computerized patient records available throughout a health care network ( 2006). To the point that congress in 2009 putRead MoreTechnology Affects Our Lives And The World981 Words   |  4 Pagessocially, but mentally and physically to renovate health care. With technology, physicians’ can digitize humans making it possible to monitor every heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, glucose level, the rate and depth of our breathing, brain waves, oxygen concentration, and muscle activity, all the things that make us tick as living beings. By interning at Sector-Wide Health, a healthcare company, our mission is to empower physicians and health care professionals to take the le ap and move forward

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Movie Review Apollo 13 - 2667 Words

Film Review: Apollo 13 Three men shivered in the cold, dark spaceship as it floated through space, unsure if they would return to Earth after the first disaster to occur in space. During the early 1960’s, America was fascinated with the Space Race. The United States became the first country to put a man on the moon, and the exploration did not stop there. Apollo 13 tells the story of three astronauts that were supposed to go to the moon. On the journey there, part of the ship exploded, causing the fuel levels to plummet. Now unable to complete the mission, the crew struggled their own disappointments and frustrations as well as the problem of how they would get home. Against the odds, Mission Control and the three crew members overcame multiple life threatening problems and managed to get the men home alive and safe. The film Apollo 13 begins with a party scene in the house of the main character, Jim Lovell. Lovell, his family, his crew, Fred Haise and Ken Mattingly, and oth er NASA colleagues gathered to watch the Apollo 11 moon landing (1995). Lovell was scheduled to be on Apollo 14, and in October of 1969 while giving a tour of NASA’s vehicle assembly building, his boss Deke Slayton informed him that he was moved up to Apollo 13 (Film). One of the crew members in Apollo 13 had gotten an ear infection and was unable to go on the mission. The film jumped to three months before the launch, the crew has been practicing the mission and they had been quite successful.Show MoreRelatedApollo 13 : Movie Review Essay1971 Words   |  8 PagesApollo 13: Movie review Harshal Kalinkar CED 529 Lifespan Human Development Arizona State University Apollo 13 The purpose of writing this paper is to identify and evaluate the developmental themes which are shown in the Apollo 13 movie. It will reflect on how the themes are related to Developmental Theories and its implications for Counselors for setting counseling goals and intervention. In addition, the reflection of developmental themes and theories and its implications for counselorsRead MoreLife, Liberty, The Pursuit Of Happiness1852 Words   |  8 Pagesplaces can you go and get what America has to offer. ‘Of, relating to, or characteristic of the United States or its inhabitants†, this is the definition of ‘American’ according to Google. Why is this ‘relevant’, you might ask? Lets take a look back, Apollo 13 and Argo films showed just what its like to represent America, and embodied what the American dream is made of, and what it is like to come from such great mishap and end with such bright and awe inspiring conclusions. It has also shown us th at evenRead MoreApollo 13 Case Analysis1599 Words   |  7 PagesGreen Team Apollo 13 Case Analysis The primary questions and issues you debated and discussed (i.e., what did your team think was most relevant about the case?). First, the green team discussed the success of the mission. We had a split jury on whether or not we thought the mission was successful. Both sides of the argument were well supported and we agreed to disagree with the following conclusions: one side took the stance that the mission was not successful because they did not make it to theRead MoreQuantitative Data Problem Solving1790 Words   |  8 Pagesdescribes (, 2010). Why then, don’t we – as a society – use it more? It would seem that our biases toward everything from race and gender to reality and fantasy get in the way. One need look no further than the classic movie â€Å"12 Angry Men† (Rose Lumet, 1957), about a dissenting juror in a murder trial who slowly manages to convince the others that the case is not as obviously clear as it seemed in court, to see that all is not as it seems to be. Even in the face of evidenceRead MoreEssay on Apollo 13 Case Study1310 Words   |  6 PagesApollo 13 Case Study Apollo 13 has experience a major malfunction which changes the mission from landing on the moon to a spacecraft that is now is in a desperate struggle to return to earth with the crew alive. The team work needed to achieve this is substantial and many of the staff at mission control center will in some degree be a leader. Aside from Gene Kranz, one of the first people to emerge as a leader and take control of the situation is Sy Liebergot. His reviewRead MoreNetflix : Case Analysis : Netflix1087 Words   |  5 Pagesmore popular than DVDs, Hasting guessed that the DVDs will get popular and this was an opportunity for them to win the market so they attempted a DVD-by-mail rent service which was an idea that Hastings got it from after paying a $40 late fee for Apollo 13 in 1997. This DVD-by-mail rent service without a subscription was not popular, so Netflix launched the subscription service with a free trail for a month on September 23, 1999 and found that 80% of customers renewed after the free trail ended. InRead MoreNetflix : A Great Influence On The Home Entertainment Environment1232 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Dumas Senior Seminar in Informatics Final Paper Draft 4/27/15 THESIS Netflix is revolutionary company operating in an incredibly dynamic industry populated by both longstanding and new competitors. In one hand, Netflix has partnered with movie and television studios to provide access to feature-length movies and episodic TV shows in the same manner that existed when the medium was designed- DVD rental. In the other hand, Netflix is operating with growing role of computer-enabled devicesRead MoreMovie Review : The Movie, Philadelphia And A Dumb Man Who Experienced Many Important Events Throughout History1700 Words   |  7 PagesTom Hanks once said, â€Å"Sometimes a man just wants the impossible.† In his lifetime, most would agree that Hanks achieved the impossible through his acting career; he personalized many influential movie parts from a gay lawyer with AIDS in the movie Philadelphia to a dumb man who experienced many important events throughout history in Forrest Gump. This shift in the acting world happened on July 9, 1956 when a star w as born. Thomas Jeffrey Hanks was born in Concord, California; his parents names areRead MoreNetflix Marketing Promotion1603 Words   |  7 PagesReed Hasting was charged late fees for returning a rented copy of Apollo 13. This inspired him and Marc Randolph, previous coworker at Pure Software, to create Netflix in 1997. The following year the website was launch with an online version of pay-per-rental model ($4.00 per rental plus $2.00 in postage; late fees applied). In September 1999, monthly subscription was introduced. Since then it has a reputation on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees, shippingRead More The Sound of Music Essay2412 Words   |  10 PagesFilm Editing, Best Film-Musical, Best Color Cinematography, and Best Costume design (Freiden par3). The movie is based upon the true story of the VonTrapp family and allows its audience to relive their family experience as well as their flight from Nazism just before the outbreak of World War Two. So why is it that even today, The Sound of Music is still the most popular movie-musical ever made? (20th Century Fox). The musical film presented a sound that inspired a generation

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ch Solutions free essay sample

This idea, in the hands of researchers and scientists evolved even further allowing those researchers the capability to communicate with their colleagues at other universities. As personal computers became more popular and affordable, companies increasingly wanted to construct their own networks. This all led to the dramatic increase in business activity, but the commercialization of the Internet was really spurred by the emergence of the World Wide Web. The software that allowed computers to communicate while on the Internet is still the largest category of traffic today 2. Describe in two paragraphs the origins of HTML. Explain how markup tags work in HTML, and describe the role of at least one person involved with HTML’s development. Answer: SGML is a software language for describing electronic documents and how they should be formatted as well as displayed. This language is the precursor of HTML, which is used by all documents on the Web. Robert Calliau and Tim Berners-Lee independently invented HTML at the CERN research center in Switzerland. HTML’s document type definition is easier for users to learn and use for describing formatting and displaying electronic documents by Meta tag codes. 3. In about 200 words, compare the POP e-mail protocol to the IMAP e-mail protocol. Describe situations in which you would prefer to use one protocol or the other and explain the reasons for your preference. Answer: A POP message can tell the e-mail computer to send mail to the user’s computer and to delete it from the e-mail computer; to send mail to the user’s computer and do not delete it; or simply to ask whether new mail has arrived. IMAP protocol performs the same basic functions as POP, but includes additional features that can instruct the e-mail server to send only selected messages to the client instead of all messages. It also allows the user to view only the headers and the e-mail sender’s name before deciding to download the entire message. One would choose IMAP if they have a need for a more robust system that allows them to access their email from different computers at different times. In about 400 words, describe the similarities and differences between XML and HTML. Provide examples of at least two situations in which you would use XML and two situations in which you would use HTML. 4. Answer: XML and HTML are similar in that they are both powerful tools for creating web pages that use tags to organize data. However, XML is not a markup language with defined tags, as is HTML. XML is a framework within which individuals, companies and others can create their own tags. These tags do not specify how the text will appear on a web page – the tags convey the meaning of the information included with them. XML also allows developers to create a tag for each fact that define the meaning of the fact. 5. Use your favorite search engine and the links in the Online Companion (under the heading â€Å"Internet Connection Options†) to search for more information about broadband satellite connections, DSL connections, wireless connections and cable connections. Prepare a four-column table (one column for each technology) in which you list the advantages and disadvantages of each connection method. Include at least two advantages and two disadvantages for each connection method. Answer: Answers will vary but should include the following: Satellite DSL Wireless Cable Advantages Upstream transmission Downstream transmission 500 Kbps Satellite users have to rely on plain old telephone system to upload files 100 – 640 Kbps 1. 5 – 9 Mbps Installation can be quirky 150 Kbps 500 Kbps Unusable for people living in large cities 300 Kbps Mbps Up to 10 Mbps Connection bandwidth varies with the number of subscribers Disadvantages Exercises 1. You are the assistant to Julie Davidson, the sales manager of Old Reliable Life Insurance Company. Julie is interested in equipping her sales force with the technology they need to sell Old Reliable’s insurance products. Most of her salespeople visit customers in their homes or offices. Today, the salespeople carry a laptop computer to show value projections and cash flow summaries for various policies. Many of them also carry a PDA for appointments and a mobile phone. Julie would like to ensure that salespeople have access to the home office server computers while they are making their sales presentations to customers. This access will let salespeople download the latest product information and obtain online assistance from office staff and inhouse experts when the salespeople get a question from a customer that they are not able to answer. A correct and quick answer to a customer’s question can often help close a difficult sale. Julie asks you to investigate various options for giving salespeople remote access to the home office server computers. She wants you to consider both wireless (directly to the laptop computers or through salespersons’ cell phones or PDAs) and wired options. Prepare a report for Julie in which you briefly review at least four options, writing no more than three paragraphs for each option. Then choose the best wired option and the best wireless option and write a one-page evaluation of strengths and weaknesses for each of them. Use the Online Companion links and your favorite Web search engines to do your research. 2 of 5 10/8/2011 1:07 PM 14188-37032_Ch02_Solutions http://www. scribd. com/doc/6739982/1418837032Ch02Solutions Electronic Commerce, 7th Edition Solutions 2-3 Answer: Options to consider include: iPass Offers secure remote access products that let both Palm and Pocket PC-based PDAs connect wirelessly to corporate servers securely. iPass is the solution to choose if you have a mix of users who use both wireless and dialup accounts to reach the corporate server. NetMotion Wireless A wireless-only provider of secure remote data access services. NetMotion works just with Windows-based PDAs like Windows CE and Pocket PC, but its VPN-based secure data tunnel has a compelling advantage over other solutions like iPass. 2. Bridgewater Engineering Company (BECO), a privately held machine shop, makes industrialquality, heavy-duty machinery for assembly lines in other factories. It sells its presses, grinders, and milling equipment using a few inside salespeople and telephones. This traditional approach worked well during the company’s start-up years, but BECO is getting a lot of competition from abroad. Because you worked for the company during the summers of your college years, BECO’s president, Tom Dalton, knows you and realizes that you are Web savvy. He wants to form close relationships with the steel companies and small parts manufacturers that are BECO’s suppliers so that he can tap into their ordering systems and request supplies when he needs them. Tom wants you to investigate how he can use the Internet to set up such electronic relationships. Use the Web and the links in the Online Companion to locate information about extranets and VPNs. Write a report that briefly describes how companies use extranets to link their systems with those of their suppliers, then write an evaluation of at least two companies (using information you have gathered in your Web searches) that could help develop an extranet that would work for Tom. Close the report with an overview of how BECO could use VPN technologies in this type of extranet. The three parts of your report should total about 700 words. Answer: Responses can vary significantly in this exercise. Any recommendation for systems development should include the infrastructure required to support a supply-chain management extranet, as well as the costs and the anticipated benefits. The infrastructure for a private network requires a TCP/IP network, Web authoring software, and a firewall server. The benefits include lower communication costs, and more timely and accessible information, as well as convenient use. 3. Frieda Bannister is the IT manager for the State of Iowa’s Department of Transportation (DOT). She is interested in finding ways to reduce the costs of operating the DOT’s vehicle repair facilities. These facilities purchase replacement parts and repair supplies for all of the state’s cars, trucks, construction machinery, and road maintenance equipment. Frieda has read about XML and thinks that it might help the DOT send orders to its many suppliers throughout the country more efficiently. Use the Online Companion links, the Web, and your library to conduct research on the use of XML in state, local, and federal government operations. Provide Frieda with a report of about 1000 words that includes sections that discuss what XML is and explain why XML shows promise for the ordering application Frieda envisions.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Motivational Program and Alcoholics Anonymous

Introduction Alcoholism is one of the issues that have affected mankind for a long time. Millions of dollars have been spent on alcohol and alcohol related issues. Thousands of families have been adversely affected, not to mention the talents that have been lost or not fully exploited due to taking of too much alcohol.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Motivational Program and Alcoholics Anonymous specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We are not in a position to measure all the impacts that indulgence in alcohol has on mankind. The society understands the weight this issue has and different approaches have been taken aiming at helping the people who are struggling to stop taking alcohol. Scientists, theoreticians, philosophers, doctors and counsellors have all come up with suggestions meant to help people struggling to stop taking alcohol. Many theories have been developed in an attempt to find strategies which can help alcohol users to quite taking alcohol. Motivational theories are widely used to explain how motivation can be used to address the alcoholism issue. Motivational theories have been developed by different psychologists over time and most of the alcohol recovery programs indeed use at least one or a combination of motivational theories to help victims recover from alcoholism. Alcoholic Anonymous is one of the widely renowned alcoholism recovery programs operating in almost 200 countries and helping millions of alcohol addicts recover from alcoholism. This paper discusses Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) motivational program, motivational theories and then analyses how successful or not the AA program has been basing on the motivational theories. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) The history of AA can be traced from a group called the Oxford Group which was a Christian organisation. Its purpose was to help men struggling to quite taking alcohol possible. It is believed that their concept of dealing with alcoholism was more of a spiritual approach as they believed that surrendering to God would help solve the sinful nature of alcoholism. AA is said to have been formed in 1939 by Bill Wilson who borrowed most of the ideas from the Oxford Group and broadened the concept to include psychological and physical treatment as well. Since then the membership has increased and the program has increased its boundaries from America and Canada, where it was originally based to different parts of the world (Kurtz, 1979). How AA works AA motivational program works on a voluntary basis whereby whoever is willing to quite taking alcohol join the group. In order to encourage alcoholic victims to join the program and at the same time protect them from public ridicule the program calls for anonymity of the members hence the name alcoholics anonymous. The program not only helps alcoholics but also people struggling from other forms of addiction as well.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is worth noting that the program is self-sustaining with no any external financial help, but works from voluntary contributions from its members and literature sales. There are no employed workers but rather the counselling is carried out by the previously recovered individuals through the mentorship program which is also voluntary. AA believes that the only qualification for membership is the decision and will to quit taking alcohol (Kurtz, 1979). There are meeting centres distributed over 200 countries and a willing member is expected to join in any of the AA group meetings close to them. Once in the group, one is expected to confess and share personal experiences as an alcoholic with other members within the group and this would thus mark the beginning of the healing process (Kurtz, 1979). Sponsorship can be seen as a mentorship program whereby members who have undergone mu ch of the recovery program have the responsibility of mentoring and helping new entrants into the 12 principles of AA treatment program. This works both ways, the new members are able to learn from the already experienced members and on the other hand the sponsors are able to improve on their recovery process by helping the new individuals. The basic principle of AA motivational program is that the victims of alcohol addiction must admit that there is a higher power, that is, God for those that believe in him or just any higher power for those that may not believe in God. By submitting oneself to this higher power instead of working on self-reliance, the high power will somehow give them assistance as they try to recover from their addiction (AA, 2008). It is worth noting that AA takes the approach of self-involvement whereby there are no organisational structures, no managers neither CEO’s. There are no documentations or regulatory official requirements but rather the organi sation is only accountable to its members. One unique characteristic of AA is the fact that individuals are not assessed by qualified experts but rather every individual does personal diagnosis and checks the progress from the 12 stepwise procedures (Dick, 1998). The course of treatment at AA is based on giving in to external greater power rather than relying on personal will and strength. In contrast to the mostly used approach of working towards improving on self-esteem, AA takes a different approach of exercising humility and submission to a greater power.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Motivational Program and Alcoholics Anonymous specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to AA, if the alcoholic just follows the simple plan that is suggested then he/she would have more chances of recovering (Galanter and Kaskutas, 2008, p. 10). In addition they believe that there is no free will in alcoholics sinc e the alcoholic has already lost personal control to alcohol. AA, according to Galanter and Kaskutas (2008), defines alcoholism as: Spiritual, mental, and physical illness and recovery requires healing all aspects of the illness; abstinence from alcohol in and of itself is regarded as â€Å"being dry† and is insufficient because alcoholism is but a â€Å"symptom† of underlying character defects. (Galanter and Kaskutas, 2008, p. 10) The success or failure of AA recovery program can arguably be attributed to the strength of an individual to undergo total change in the way of thinking. The expectation of change of thought to surrender to an external powerful authority is expected to help the person quite taking alcohol. Simple suggestions are made to new individuals especially those who want to take drastic changes at a go. AA believes that the simple and few steps will help someone to stabilise before making tougher decisions later. It is claimed that one of the strength s of AA is its cognitive approach to dealing with alcoholism. â€Å"AA meetings provide an atmosphere in which cognitive restructuring can take place† (Galanter and Kaskutas, 2008, p. 10). In addition the AA’s12 steps, attendance to meetings and being a mentor or sponsor all works positively towards mental restructuring. Self-diagnosis is one of the most important elements of the program as individuals can develop their own alcoholic individuality which, according to psychologists, creates self-recovery on one’s inner self. Motivational theories Motivational theories are thoughts and assumptions that attempt to explain the nature of a human being in terms of what prompts or triggers actions towards a certain direction. Huitt (2001) defined motivation as â€Å"internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction, or desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior, or influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direc tion of behavior† (Huitt, 2001, p. 1). The AA program uses the ideology of motivation to help alcoholic victims recover from their alcoholic behavior.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Biological motivation Biological motivation is based on the fact that human actions may be driven in such a way to satisfy an internal biological need such as need to satisfy hunger or thirst. It is believed that there are internal subconscious drives that make a human being behave in a certain way (Bernstein Nash, 2006). Drive reduction theory explains how human actions are biologically motivated in order to reduce the causative agent inside the human nature. This theory is based on the fact that inside any organism are physiological or biological needs and requirement such as hunger, thirst, sexual desire, among others which, unless met, will trigger and maintain an unstable state of body which is believed to increase with time if the need is not satisfied in time (Bernstein Nash, 2006). The process can be viewed as a feedback mechanism (Deci and Ryan, 2008). When the physiological need is satisfied the organism will go back to the normal or stable state. When the physiological need is met either directly or indirectly then, there is a reduction of the drive. Arousal theory explains that it is in human nature to sustain a definite degree of arousal that makes us feel stable and comfortable. It can mean emotional, rational or even physical activity (Shah Gardner, 2008). The AA program certainly uses biological motivation though in a simplistic approach. The program appreciates the fact that total abstinence at once may never give any desirable results. This is because a sudden stop of use of alcohol especially for addicts will definitely trigger one of the strongest biological needs to quench the alcoholic thirst. The biological motivation principle of maintaining the physiological homeostasis will be triggered by sudden cut off of alcohol. What the program advocates is continual gradual reduction in the amount of alcohol taken which will eventually reduce to manageable level where total cut off can be done. In addition the AA principle of relinquishing on eself to a higher power to take over the alcoholic problem can arguably be seen as a diversion of the alcoholic biological motivation to an external agent and in that way, the biological drive and arousal are somewhat compressed. This is likely to enable the alcoholics recover quickly. Cognitive/social motivational theory This theory explains how behavior patterns of individuals are influenced by, among other factors, physical environmental, people and situations. This theory connects between the individual, environment and the behavior. The environment can be seen as a combination of all the external factors that are likely to influence a person’s behavior (Deci and Ryan, 2008). The person’s perception about the different aspects of the environment is believed to influence the person’s behavior. The behavior can also be influenced by a person’s perception of other people’s behaviors through either watching them or even when interacting with them. Tolman Purposeful behavior theory Tolman was one of the social cognitive theorists. Through his numerous experiments with rats and mazes he came up with the theory of purposeful behavior. According to Daltonâ€Å" Tolman proposed that learning could occur without reinforcement and without an observable change in behavior. In addition, Tolman found that behavior is affected by an organism’s expectations, often resulting goal-oriented, purposeful behavior† (Dalton 1). This is arguably one of the most applicable motivational theories in the AA program. The success or failure of any given case in the AA program depends, to a large extent on the expectation of the individual. If the individual has a predetermined mind about recovery his behavior in the AA program will certainly lead him to recovery. Asch attribution and conformity theory Solomon Asch presented his theories conformity and attribution. According his attribution theory, individuals attribute actions in life to an agent either external or internal. Alcoholics may attribute their drinking habit to lack of self control. AA program counter attacks the different attributions by offering a supernatural, powerful being in which the drunkards can attribute their weaknesses and hence relinquish their inner self to the power. In addition his conformity theory which revolves about voluntary yielding to situations despite personal preferences also applies. Being in the presence of a group of similar individuals in the AA meetings creates a favorable condition for conformity to the behavior of the group. This does help in motivating the alcoholics towards recovery. The physical environment such as the condition of a house or a class may play a significant part in motivating someone. The physical environment may also be a source of materials, opportunities or even societal support; this is one of the motivation strategies employed by the AA program. The fact that members meet in places far away from p ublic ridicule and in the presence of other like members makes the environment conducive for the recovery program (Bernstein Nash, 2006). A given situation may either motivate or discourage someone to behave in a certain way. In addition how an individual perceives a given situation may have an effect on the course of action to be taken depending on whether the situation was perceived as encouraging or discouraging. AA uses this technique to make the newcomers feel comfortable in the knowledge that they are in the presence of people who have gone through a similar situation and this is actually a motivation for new members to continue with the recovery program (Bernstein Nash, 2006). Expectancies which can be viewed as valuable or the importance an individual places on the expected results or rewards may have a great impact on the level of motivation for that person. People who place a higher value on the outcome are more likely to be more motivated than those who do not value the outcome as much. In AA the 12 principles places a lot of importance to the kind of life one is likely to enjoy after recovery from alcoholism. The new members actually get a chance of interacting with the already recovered members and this is a motivation enough to make them stick to the program however difficult it may seem to be. Self-control plays a very important role in motivation. People who have the internal strength of self-control may exhibit a result oriented behavior and as such they are likely to be more motivated if they are presented with conditions or situations that will demand determination or control in order to achieve the desired results. The AA program calls for determination to accept one’s alcoholic condition and surrendering to a higher authority which has the power to heal the spiritual and psychological sickness. They advocate for stepwise self-control whereby one is not required to automatically quit drinking but rather practice self-control for sh ort durations which can then be extended to achieve the desired results. This is likely to motivate self-controlled individuals (Dick, 1998). There are individuals who learn from others and are more likely to be motivated not because of what they are doing or capable of doing but by simply admiring what other people around them are doing. Individuals who are addicted to alcoholism can be motivated by being exposed to individuals who have already quite taking alcohol. AA program offers the best opportunity for the individuals struggling with alcoholism to interact with the recovering or the already recovered individuals, otherwise known as sponsorship. Through sponsorship individuals are able to associate and take after their sponsors. This can be the best method of motivation for some of the members (Dick, 1998). Self-efficacy is also believed to influence the level of motivation in a person. Some people are more motivated in the belief and knowledge that they have what it takes to complete the given task. By understanding how different people are in terms of how they are motivated, then it becomes easier to help them achieve their goals and objectives. This is best applicable in the AA program whereby alcoholics are made to believe that the desired outcome can only come from their personal will to give up themselves to a greater power for healing (Dick, 1998). Eclectic theory Eclectic theorists try to explain motivation and behaviour of people by taking on pieces of what they believe to be the best from other theories. They claim that the human nature is so complex and as such not one approach may suffice to explain the relationship between motivation and human behaviour. The 12 principle AA motivational program employs all the methods as a mixture in order to achieve the desired results. Strengths of AA program Galanter and Kaskutas (2008) claimed that â€Å"AA program is complex, implicitly grounded in sound psychological principles, and more sophisticated than is typically understood† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 10). Although much criticism has been thrown over the program, it can be claimed that such criticism may be due to the misunderstanding of the whole idea behind the program. In addition, the fact that the program works under anonymity makes it difficult and tricky to research, analyse and document success or failure of the program. We can arguably say that the program has achieved success as compared to other programs offering the same type of service. From basic knowledge the program started in 1935 and has only grown, gaining membership every year. Then we can claim that if there was no any considerable success then the program would have died long time ago. It is also claimed that â€Å"an increasing number of DUIs are court ordered to AA† (Galanter and Kaskutas, 2008, p. 13) arguably for a simple reason, the judicial systems have confidence in the AA program. Success can also be based on the methodology of the program. The program employs a self-healing process where the victim plays the major role in initialising and maintaining the recovery process with the help of other members of the group (Deci Ryan, 2008). The fact that the program allows for personal participation, motivational environment and a chance to put into practice what one has learned by sharing with others and mentorship program suffices that a degree of success is likely to be achieved (AA, 2008). The fact that the AA program seeks to change the way of thinking of the alcoholics and not merely helping them stop the drinking habit implies that the impact of the program will be astounding. AA defines alcoholism as â€Å"spiritual, mental, and physical illness and healing require healing all aspects of the illness† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 14). This posits that either 100% success may be achieved when an individual has fully recovered from alcoholism and thus in a better position mentally, spiritually and physically or at least some degree of success when one is not able to recover in all aspects (AA, 2002). Another point worth noting is that AA provides a program that is fit and comfortable for everyone, both spiritual and non-spiritual. Each person can customise the recovery program according to personal preferences â€Å"the house that AA helps a man build for himself is different for each occupant because each occupant is his own architect† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 18). Atheists, believers, radicals as well as conformists can fit in the program and that is arguably the greatest achievement of the AA program. Other recovery programs such as religious sponsored institution are not compatible to such a wide variety of individuals. A statistical approach to the question of the success of the program indicates that the program has met and even exceeded expectations. A report carried out to determine success rate claimed that: A total of 68% of the women in the survey repor ted that they had stopped drinking within a year of their first meeting as compared with only 63% of the men. At the same time, 74% of those under thirty reported they had stopped drinking within a year of attending their first AA meeting, compared with 63% of those over thirty. (AA, 2008, p. 6) One of the strengths of AA is in the structure. AA works as a community though anonymous. A community of people with a common challenge in life and this is perhaps one of the greatest advantages members have, to work and share with people who have or are already undergoing what one is going through. When a new person hears the testimonies of other members who have experienced to be AA community then they get encouraged that all is not lost for them (Medvene, 1989). Another advantage of the AA program lies in the fact that individuals who have the will to stick around for some time get a chance to accelerate their recovery through mentoring the young members in the group. This can be seen as a helper therapy which is believed to help mentors affirm the need to quit alcoholism. A research done to confirm whether indeed this was true found out that â€Å"those helping other alcoholics were less likely to relapse (60%) than those who did not help their peers (78%)† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 24). The element of reciprocity in AA gives it an upper hand over other programs. Since the program works on the principle of self-help with the help of others and that there is no any monetary payments to be made, then the only way members can give back is by doing good to themselves by quitting alcoholism. It is claimed that â€Å"many follow moral norms or reciprocity found in society at large and believe that they should give back, if not to their immediate benefactor, to some generalized other in the future† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 25). AA weaknesses It can be argued that one of the greatest weaknesses of AA lies in its structure. The fact that there are no any official or managerial structures makes the program vulnerable to abuse and expression of personal interests, for instance it is claimed that, at times â€Å"members of AA groups may dispel disruptive drunk attendees or treat newcomers in such a way that they feel unwelcome† (Galanter Kaskutas, 2008, p. 13). This may not be the case if there was some kind of management that may regulate the response and reaction of other members towards newcomers. The principle of freewill entry to anyone including disruptive drunkards may also be one of the disadvantages. Disruptive drunkards may be more of a discouragement than a motivation to others who may be trying to concentrate on their recovery program (Dick, 1998). The fact that the program is based on a spiritual background may not work for people who do not have any spiritual relation. The success of the program depends on the individual willingness and strength to change the way of thinking. This may be a goal hard to achieve given that the drunkards, in their state of drunkenness, have already given up and may not have the inner drive to change their way of thinking (Medvene, 1989). Conclusion The effect of alcohol on our community is such a great issue that it can simply not be ignored. The community always finds a way of helping those of us struggling with alcoholism and other forms of addiction. Alcoholic people need a lot of motivation in order to encourage and help them out of the alcohol menace. Different kinds of motivational theories such as biological, eclectic, social/cognitive do exist and their applicability in motivating alcoholics to recover is very instrumental. AA is one of the most widely used alcoholic recovery programs and its efficiency in its task mostly lies in the motivations that do exist in different aspects of the program. Though there has been much criticism about the program, it appeals to many and its strengths may far outweigh its weaknesses. References AA. (2002). The Twe lve Steps Of Alcoholics Anonymous. Web. AA. (2008). Alcoholics Anonymous Recovery outcome Rates. Web. Bernstein, D Nash, P. (2006). Essentials of psychology. New York, NY: Cengage Learning. Dalton, S. (n.d.). Synopsis Paper #2. Web. Deci, E Ryan, R. (2008). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Springer. Dick, B. (1998). The Oxford Group and Alcoholics Anonymous. New York, NY: Good Book Publishing Company. Galanter, M Kaskutas, L. (2008). Research on alcoholics anonymous and spirituality in addiction recovery: the twelve-step program model. New York, NY: Springer. Kurtz, E. (1979). Not-God: A History of Alcoholics Anonymous. Minnesota: Hazelden Publishing. Medvene, M. (1989). Foilrigami. New York, NY: Astor-Honor Inc. Shah, J Gardner, W. (2008). Handbook of Motivation Science. New York, NY: Guilford Press. This research paper on Motivational Program and Alcoholics Anonymous was written and submitted by user D'Ken Neramani to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Parietal Lobes Function and Brain Anatomy

Parietal Lobes Function and Brain Anatomy The parietal lobes are one of the four main lobes or regions of the cerebral cortex. The parietal lobes are positioned behind the frontal lobes and above the temporal lobes. These lobes are important to the function and processing of sensory information, understanding spatial orientation and body awareness. Location Directionally, the parietal lobes are superior to the occipital lobes and posterior to the central sulcus and frontal lobes. The central sulcus is the large deep groove or indentation that separates the parietal and frontal lobes. Function The parietal lobes are involved in a number of important functions in the body. One of the main functions is to receive and process sensory information from all over the body. The somatosensory cortex is found within the parietal lobes and is essential for processing touch sensations. For instance, the somatosensory cortex helps us to identify the location of a touch sensation and to discriminate between sensations such as temperature and pain. Neurons in the parietal lobes receive touch, visual and other sensory information from a part of the brain called the thalamus. The thalamus relays nerve signals and sensory information between the peripheral nervous system and the cerebral cortex. The parietal lobes process the information and help us to identify objects by touch. The parietal lobes work in concert with other areas of the brain,  such as the motor cortex and visual cortex, to perform certain tasks. Opening a door, combing your hair, and placing your lips and tongue in the proper position to speak all involve the parietal lobes. These lobes are also important for understanding spatial orientation and for proper navigation. Being able to identify the position, location and movement of the body and its parts is an important function of the parietal lobes. Parietal lobe functions include: CognitionInformation ProcessingTouch Sensation (Pain, Temperature, etc.)Understanding Spatial OrientationMovement CoordinationSpeechVisual PerceptionReading and WritingMathematical Computation Damage Damage or injury to the parietal lobe can cause a number of difficulties. Some of the difficulties as it relates to language include the inability to recall the correct names of everyday items, inability to write or spell, impaired reading, and the inability to position the lips or tongue properly in order to speak. Other problems that may result from damage to the parietal lobes include difficulty in performing goal-directed tasks, difficulty in drawing and performing math calculations, difficulty in identifying objects by touch or distinguishing between different types of touch, inability to distinguish left from right, lack of hand-eye coordination, difficulty in understanding direction, lack of body awareness, difficulty in making exact movements, inability to perform complex tasks in the proper order, difficulty in localizing touch and deficits in attention.​ Certain types of problems are associated with damage caused to either the left or right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Damage to the left parietal lobe typically results in difficulties in understanding language and writing. Damage to the right parietal lobe results in difficulties with understanding spatial orientation and navigation. Cerebral Cortex Lobes The cerebral cortex is the thin layer of tissue that covers the cerebrum. The cerebrum is the largest component of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres with each hemisphere being divided into four lobes. Each brain lobe has a specific function. Functions of the cerebral cortex lobes involve everything from interpreting and processing sensory information to decision-making and problem-solving capabilities. In addition to the parietal lobes, the lobes of the brain consist of the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes. The frontal lobes are involved in reasoning and the expression of personality. The temporal lobes assist in organizing sensory input and memory formation. The occipital lobes are involved in visual processing.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

What made Franklin D. Roosevelt such a powerful leader and one of the Essay

What made Franklin D. Roosevelt such a powerful leader and one of the most highly regarded presidents in American history - Essay Example Because of his strong advocacy, the love of freedom is still alive in America today (InfoUSA 1). As a great leader, Franklin Roosevelt devoted his effort to the service of his country. In as much as critics may highlight instances of failure during his presidency, Roosevelt has a legacy as a strong leader in the country’s history. People generally accept that F. D. Roosevelt remains one of the greatest leaders in the world. He served as the 32nd President of the country. Roosevelt was born in New York. His leadership guided the United States and helped it during hard moments. He has been considered a central political figure throughout the world, as well. Roosevelt laid a solid foundation of leadership as a president during his early age. He was bright during his young age and graduated from Harvard University. â€Å"Roosevelt became very active with the school newspaper.† When he undertook studies at Harvard, he spent most of his time in publishing the school newspaper. After he graduated from Harvard, â€Å"Franklin D. Roosevelt joined Columbia Law School.† Various experiences and knowledge helped him win the Senate seat later (Rosenberg 1). As a great leader, Roosevelt made a number of improvements in society. One of the most significant and remarkable things he did, and probably the most successful one, was that he led the United States recovery from the Great Depression (Rosen 130). The Great Depression was an economic decline in the United States. â€Å"Banks in all 48 states had either closed or had placed restrictions on how much money depositors could withdraw.† Most banks were bankrupted during the Great Depression; thus, people could not take their money. Additionally, unemployment rose and people lost their jobs overnight. People suffered during this period. As economic distress increased in the United States, Franklin Roosevelt was elected to be a new president instead of President Hoover in order to save